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托福在线备考小组人大专版 救赎沉沦,作业日志作业包13

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摘要:托福听力听写日志 2011/1/22 13:50-14:40 中文翻译: 听一段医学专业。 一切都像昨天一样,我坐在你们坐在的地方,结束我大一的学习生活,迟疑我是否有机会将学会的知识用到真实世界的

托福听力听写日志 2011/1/22 13:50-14:40

中文翻译:

听一段医学专业。

一切都像昨天一样,我坐在你们坐在的地方,结束我大一的学习生活,迟疑我是否有机会将学会的知识用到真实世界的病人诊断中。我有一个好消息告诉你们,你们不用等到大三大四来获得实习经验,领导让我来到这里向你们介绍一个农村机会的项目。如果你参加了这个项目,你们会像我一样在大一结束后的暑假在一个小社区范围内花费4-6个星期跟随和帮助一个真正的外科医生。你不用和其他同学因为时间和紧张而竞争,而且你可以看见真实乡村医生的生活是什么样子的。这个项目是为了鼓励医学院学生去那些农村医学不发达地区工作。看起来医学学生害怕去农村地区实习发展有两个原因:第一,他们不是很了解情况;第二,在城市中通常会赚更多的钱。但是,在农村边远地区医生可以真正的了解病人,而且可以在社区中成为被尊重的人。我从这个项目刚刚成立就参加了,而且在一个农村小镇中呆了6个星期。让我来告诉你,那感觉棒极了。我有机会诊断真正的病人,我看到了怎样生小孩,协助治疗了事故难民,而且在仅仅一个暑假就获得了很多的实际医学经验和做法。让我吃惊的是我发现农村生活提供了很多城市生活中没有的部分,例如:没有污染、没有堵车。我的这个经历让我在我被需要和我喜欢的地方工作,我一点都不想念城市生活。

英文听写:

Listen to a talk of a medical profession.

It seems like just yesterday I was sitting where you are, just finishing my first year of medical school and wondering if I got a chance to use all of my new knowledge on a real-life patient. Well, I have good news for you. You don’t have to wait until your third or fourth grade of medical school to get some hand-on experience. The dean has invited me here to tell you a university’s rural opportunities program. If you enroll this program, you will have the opportunity this summer after your first year of medical school to spend 4 to 6 weeks observing and assisting a real physician like me in a small rural community. You won’t have to compete with other students for time and attention, and you can see what life as a country doctor is really like. The program was designed to encourage the medical students like yourselves to consider careers in rural communities that are still understaffed. It seems that medical students were afraid to go to rural family practice for 2 reasons: first, they don’t know much about it, and second specialists in the cities usually make more money. But on the up-side, in rural practice, doctors can really get to know their patients and be respected members in the community. I participated in the program when it first started and spend 6 weeks in a small rural town. Let me tell you it was really great. I got to work with real patients. I watched the birth of a child, assisted an accident victim and had lots of really practical hand-on experiences all in one summer. And to my surprise, I found the country life has a lot to offer that city life doesn’t, no pollution and traffic jams for instance. My experiences made me want to work where I am needed and appreciated. I don’t miss the city at all.
 
作业包13 阅读翻译 2011/1/23

THE ARRIVAL OF PLANT LIFE IN HAWAII

夏威夷岛的植物生活

When the Hawaiian islands emerged from the sea as volcanoes, starting about five million years ago, they were far removed from other landmasses. Then, as blazing sunshine alternated with
drenching rains, the harsh, barren surfaces of the black rocks slowly began to soften. Winds brought a variety of life-forms.

当在500万年前夏威夷岛作为火山从海上浮现出来的时候,它们离其它的大陆很远。然后,由于强烈的阳光和大量的雨水交替,使得坚硬的贫瘠的黑石头表面开始慢慢的变软。风吹带来了许多不同种类的生物。

Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks. A few of these spores found a toehold on the dark, forbidding rocks and grew and began to work their transformation upon the land. Lichens were probably the first successful flora. These are not single individual plants; each one is a symbiotic combination of an alga and a fungus. The algae capture the Sun's energy by photosynthesis and store it in organic molecules. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living things that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.

孢子很轻而被微风从原来的地方带到了数千英里以外,随意的飞到了秃山的侧面。这些孢子中的一个部分在黑暗中找到了一个立足点,可以防止石头滚过,它们生长然后开始在这片土地上面生长更替。地衣可能是第一个在这里成功生存的植物群。他们不是单独的个体植物。每一个都是一个由水藻和真菌组成的共生组合。水藻主要是通过光和作用获得太阳的能量然后将它储存在有机分子中。真菌从岩石中吸收水分和矿物质盐并把它们传递到废物中从而养育水藻。很重要的是最早的在这个岛屿上生存的生物都是共生生物的例子,是一种由两种或者更多不同种生活方式的生物决定的现象而且是一个岛屿生物圈形成的非常重要的原则。

Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. These plants propagate by producing spores-tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant-but the spores are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming
tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.

地衣帮助加速坚硬岩石表面的分解,在土壤上预备了一个柔软的培育床,它富含从地球最深处熔岩中提取的矿物质。然后,其他形势的生物可以来到这里生存:蕨类植物和苔藓(两种大陆上最古老的植物),它们甚至在石头缝里面都可以生存。这些植物通过生产孢子那么大小的可受精的细胞,它们包含了所有孕育新植物的物质进行繁衍,但是孢子不被任何外壳所保护而且不含有营养物质。大量的孢子落在它们母体的下方土壤上。有的时候它们会被水或者风带到更远的地方。但是只有少数降落在适于生长地区的孢子才可以生长,其它大量的孢子会落到贫瘠的土地中。然而,通过数量的优势,苔藓和蕨类植物来到了夏威夷岛,生存下来,并且繁衍下去。有些种类生长了很大的尺寸,成为了树木蕨类,而且现在甚至生长在夏威夷森林中。

Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Island were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus, the speed's chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperm the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seeds to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

在蕨类植物演化后的数百年(但是在夏威夷岛从海里出现很久之后),另一种植物群在土地上演化:有种子的植物。这是一个重大的生物界发明。种子有一个外壳包裹着新植物体的基因物质,而且在这个外壳里面是集中提供的营养物质。于是,种子比那些裸露的孢子的生存机会要大得多。一种有种子植物的类型是被子植物,包括了所有的开花植物。在被子植物中,种子被额外的皮包裹着。这些外壳有些坚硬的像见过,就是为了很好的保护种子。有的很软而且诱人,像是桃子和樱桃。有些被子植物的种子有蛛丝般的翅膀,例如蒲公英和乳草属植物的种子。这些新特性为种子找到新的栖息地提供了更好的方法。他们可以通过空气传播,飘在水面上,在土壤中休眠很多个月。

Plants with large, buoyant seeds-like coconuts-drift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater. When they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats softer. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun.

有很大的而且可以漂浮的种子的植物像椰子,通过海浪漂流从而被冲到海岸上。在多变的海洋生活中坚持成为引人注目的一点,它们可以浸泡在咸水中的情况下生存很久。当它们来到了温暖的海滩而且条件适宜,种子外壳就会变得柔软了。通过种子中的营养物质养育,新生植物生出它们的根并且在阳光下生长。

By means of these seeds, plants spread more widely to new locations, even to isolated islands like the Hawaiian archipelago, which lies more than 2,000 miles west of California and 3,500 miles east of Japan. The seeds of grasses, flowers, and blooming trees made the long trips to these islands. (Grasses are simple forms of angiosperms that bear their encapsulated seeds on long stalks.) In a surprisingly short time, angiosperms filed many of the land areas on Hawaii that had been bare.

通过这种种子,植物可以传播到更远的地区,甚至像夏威夷群岛这样的距离西加利福尼亚2000英里以外,距离日本东部3500英里以外的孤立岛屿。草、花、开花树木的在种子经过很长的路程来到这些岛屿。(草市被子植物的简单形式,它将它的种子装如长长的主茎中。)在很短的一段时间内,被子植物生长在了夏威夷岛的许多地方,那些地方曾经是寸草不生的。


作业包13 长难句翻译 开始时间:2011/1/24 12:04

(121) To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures.

可以肯定的是,仍然有小的工作坊,在那里技能纯熟的手工制造者生产从报纸到陈列柜再到水管固定装置等物品。

(122) And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building.

并且有负责金属制造的工厂,在那里个体承包者管理使他们可以在一座大楼里面和平共处的必需手工艺术品所有权。

(123) Stretching over distances greater than a million light-years, these radio-emitting regions resemble twin turbulent gas clouds, typically forming dumbbell-like shapes with the visible galaxy (when it is visible) in the center.

在伸展起来比一百万光年还要远的距离的情况下,这些电波发射地区像是两片一样的汹涌的气云,形成哑铃的形状,其中在中心地区有可见的(当它可见的时候)星系。

(124) With the advent of high-resolution radio interferometers during the late 1970s, part of the answer became clear: The electrons are produced in jets that are shot out in opposite directions from the center of a galaxy.

随着20世纪七十年代末高分辨率电波干涉仪的出现,部分回答变得明确了:电子是喷射流形成的,它们从中心星系的对面方向被射出来。

(125) These are the double radio sources, galaxies with huge clouds of radio emission that dwarf the visible galaxies, sometimes by a factor of a hundred or more.

这些是双重电波源头,拥有电波释放可以缩小可见星系的庞大云团星系,有时候会

(126) Somehow new electrons must be continually accelerated to nearly the speed of light: Otherwise, by now almost none of the double radio sources would be observed.

新的电子必需以某种方式不断的加速至快接近光速,否则现在基本上不会有双重电波源头被发现。

(127) The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one, and, in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans and craftspeople.

美国从它的前辈殖民者手中继承的雕塑遗产是很丰厚的,而且事实上在1776年,雕塑作为一种艺术形式仍然在技工和手工制作者的手中。

(128) On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770’s when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pill.

在很少的情况下,这时需要一座很好的雕塑,美国人会向国外的雕塑家求助,像是在十八世纪七十年代当纽约、查尔斯顿、南加利福尼亚这些城市雇佣Joseph Wilton这个英国人去为William Pill雕塑大理石像。

(129) Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally think of as “sculptors” in today’s use of the word.

尽管他们经常在早起风格上获得正式和非正式的赞赏,但是他们仍然保持着技工在手工雕刻方面的技能并且创造了与我们现在使用的正常意义上认为的雕塑完全不同的派别。

(130) But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists who knew both the artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and the various technical procedures of modeling, casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms, as not known among Americans in 1776.

但是雕塑作为高等艺术,被那些既懂得文艺复兴、巴咯克、咯可可前辈艺术理论又懂得许多塑型、角色选派、雕刻表情丰富的三维模型这些在1776年不被美国人所知道的技术步骤的艺术家所练习。

结束时间:2011/1/24 12:54



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