2018-06-16 09:17 三立在线
IF YOU wantsomething done, the saying goes, give it to a busy person. It is an odd way toguarantee hitting deadlines. But a paper recentlypublished in the Journal of Consumer Research suggestsit may, in fact, be true—as long as the busy person conceptualises the deadlinein the right way.
Yanping Tu ofthe University of Chicago and Dilip Soman of the University of Toronto examinedhow individuals go about both thinking about and completing tasks. Previousstudies have shown that such activity progresses through four distinct phases:pre-decision, post-decision (but pre-action), action and review. It is thoughtthat what motivates the shift from the decision-making stages to thedoing-something stage is a change in mindset.
Human beings area deliberative sort, weighing the pros and cons of future actions and remainingopen to other ideas and influences. However, once a decision is taken, the mindbecomes more "implemental" and focuses on the task at hand. “Themindset towards ‘where can I get a sandwich’,” explains Ms Tu, “is moreimplemental than the mindset towards ‘should I get a sandwich or not?’"
Ms Tu and DrSoman advise in their paper that "the key step in getting things done isto get started." But what drives that? They believe the key that unlocksthe implemental mode lies in how people categorise time. They suggest thattasks are more likely to be viewed with an implemental mindset if an imposed deadlineis cognitively linked to "now"—a so-called like-the-presentscenario. That might be a future date within the same month or calendar year,or pegged to an event with a familiar spot in the mind's timeline (being givena task at Christmas, say, with a deadline of Easter). Conversely, they suggest,a deadline placed outside such mental constructs (being"unlike-the-present") exists merely as a circle on a calendar, and assuch is more likely to be considered deliberatively and then ignored until thelast minute.
To flesh outthis idea, the pair carried out five sets of tests, with volunteers rangingfrom farmers in India to undergraduate students in Toronto. In one test,the farmers were offered a financial incentive to open a bank account and makea deposit within six months. The researchers predicted those approached in Junewould consider a deadline before December 31st as like-the-present. Thoseapproached in July, by contrast, received a deadline into the next year, andwere expected to think of their deadline as unlike-the-present. The distinctionworked. Those with a deadline in the same year were nearly four times morelikely to open the account immediately as those for whom the deadline lay inthe following year. Arbitrary though calendars may be in dividing uptime's continuous flow, they influence the way humans think about time.
The effect canmanifest itself in even subtler ways. In another set of experiments,undergraduate students were given a calendar on a Wednesday and were asked tosuggest an appropriate day to carry out certain tasks before the followingSunday. The trick was that some were given a calendar with all of the weekdayscoloured purple, with weekends in beige (making a visual distinction between aWednesday and the following Sunday). Others were given a calendar in whichevery other week, Monday to Sunday, was a solid colour (meaning that aWednesday and the following Sunday were thus in the same week, and in the samecolour). Even this minor visual cue affected how like- or unlike-the-presentthe respondents tended to view task priorities.
These and otherbits of framing and trickery in the research support the same thesis: thatmaking people link a future event to today triggers an implemental response,regardless of how far in the future the deadline actually lies. If the journeyof 1,000 miles starts with a single step, the authors might suggest that youtake that step before this time next week.
测听（督导测听基础情况、教师测听知识点掌握情况）—> 安排课程计划（教师上课计划+督导计划）—> 课程执行与反馈—> 期中测评—> 课程执行与反馈、答疑—> 期末测评—> 预警测评—> 考前点题—> 考前答疑。
教师上课方式：方法论（1/4课程时间）+ 专题训练（1/4课程时间）+ 套题训练（1/4课程时间）+ 查缺补漏（1/4课程时间）