SAT OG真题下载第一套 含答案
2015-02-01 19:02 三立在线
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Turn to page 2 of your answer sheet to write your ESSAY.
The essay gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can develop and express ideas. You should’ therefore, take
care to develop your point of view, present your ideas logically and clearly, and use language precisely.
Your essay must be written on the lines provided on your answer sheet~~you will receive no other paper on which to write.
You will have enough space if you write on every line，avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.
Remember that people who are not familiar with your handwriting will read what you write. Try to write or print so that what
you are writing is legible to those readers.
You have twenty-five minutes to write an essay on the topic assigned below. DO NOT WRITE ON ANOTHER TOPIC.
AN OFF-TOPIC ESSAY WILL RECEIVE A SCORE OF ZERO.
Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below.
To change is to risk something, making us feel insecure. Not to change is a bigger risk, though we seldom feel that way. There is no choice but to change. People, however，cannot be motivated to change from the outside. All of our motivation comes from within.
Adapted from Ward Sybouts, Planning in School Administration: A Handbook Assignment: What motivates people to change? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.
DO NOT WRITE YOUR ESSAY IN YOUR TEST BOOK, You will receive credit only for what you write on your answer sheet.
BEGIN WRITING YOUR ESSAY ON PAGE 2 OF THE ANSWER SHEET,
If you finish before time Is called, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not turn to any other section in the test.
Turn to Section 2 (page 4) of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.
Directions: For each question in this section, select the best answer from among the choices given and fill in the corresponding
circle on the answer sheet.
Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank
indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath
the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A
through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when
inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the
sentence as a whole.
Hoping to-------dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be-------labor and management.
(A) enforce .. useful
(B) end .. divisive
(C) overcome . . unattractive
(D) extend .. satisfactory
(E) resolve .. acceptable ® ® © @ 泰
1. The------- Irene Pomes' play Mud—a realistic room perched on a dirt pile—challenges conventional interpretations of stage scenery.
(A) appeal (B) plot (C) mood (D) setting (E) rehearsal
2. Ironically, an affluent society that purchases much more food than it actually needs suffers because of that------- in conditions of affluence diseases relatedto overeating and poor nutrition seem to .
(A) lavishness .. adapt
(B) overabundance .. thrive
(C) corpulence •. vex
(D) practicality .. awaken ,
(E) commonness .. abound
3. Because of the------- of the hot springs，tourists suffering from various ailments flocked to the village's thermal pools.
(A) succulent (B) redolent (C) cerebral (D) mandatory (E) therapeutic
4, More valuable and comprehensive than any previously proposed theory of the phenomenon, Salazar*s research has-------basis for all subsequent------- field：
(A) undermined .. advancements
(B) prepared .. debacles
(C) provided .. investigations
(D) dissolved .. experiments z ‘
(E) reinforced .. misconceptions
5. Dangerously high winds------- to begin the space shuttle mission on schedule, delaying the launch by nearly a week.
(A) thwarted (B) forfeited (C) implemented (D) discharged (E) redoubled
6. The guest speaker on Oprah Winfrey's talk show offended the audience by first-------and then refusing to moderate these-------
(A) flattering .. commendable
(B) haranguing .. intemperate
(C) praising . . radical
(D) enraging .. conciliatory
(E) accommodating . . indulgent
7. By the end of the long’ arduous hike’ Chris was walking with a-------limping slowly back to the campsite.
(A) halting (B) robust (C) constant (D) prompt (E) facile
8. Actors in melodramas often emphasized tense mcMnents by being-------example, raising their voices and pretending to swoon.
(A) imperious (B) inscrutable (C) convivial (D) histrionic (E) solicitous
The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided.
Questions 9-12 are based on the following passages.
The intelligence of dolphins is well documented by sci¬ence. Studies show that dolphins are able to understand sign language, solve puzzles，and use objects in their we environment as tools. Scientists also believe that dolphins 5 possess a sophisticated language: numerous instances have been recorded in y/hich dolphins transmitted information from one individual to anoAer. A recent experiment proved that dolphins can even recognize themselves in a mirror一something achieved by very few animals. This behavior 10 demonstrates that dolphins are aware of their own indi¬viduality, indicating a level of intelligence that may be very near our own.
Are dolphins unusually intelligent? Dolphins have large brains, but we know that brain size alone does 15 not determine either the nature or extent of intelligence.Some researchers have suggested that dolphins have big brains because they need Aem—for sonar and sound processing and for social interactions. Others have argued that regardless of brain size, dolphins have an intelligence 20 level somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.
The fact is’ we don't know, and comparisons may not be especially helpful. Just as human intelligence is appropri¬ ate for human needs, dolphin intelligence is right for the dolphin's way of life. Until we know more，all we can say 25 is that dolphin intelligence is different.
9. In lines 2-8’ the author of Passage 1 mentions activities that suggest dolphins
(A) are unusually sensitive to their environment
(B) do not generally thrive in captivity
(C) have a unique type of intelligence ♦
(D) are uncommonly playful animals
(E) have skills usually associated with humans
10. The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to the last sentence of Passage 1 by
(A) suggesting that intelligence in animals is virtually impossible to measure
(B) observing that intelligence does not mean the same thing for every species
(C) questioning the objectivity of the studies already conducted
(D) noting that dolphin activities do not require a high level of intelligence
(E) arguing that little is actually known about dolphin social behavior
11. The two passages differ in their views of dolphin intelligence in that Passage 1 states that dolphins
(A) share a sophisticated culture, while Passage 2 contends that dolphin intelligence is roughly equal to human intelligence
(B) are as intelligent as humans, while Passage 2 notes that dolphins outperform other animals
(C) are more intelligent than most other animals,while Passage 2 points out that dolphins are less intelligent than other mammals
(D) are highly intelligent, while Passage 2 suggests that there is not enough evidence to understand dolphin intelligence folly
(E) have large brains’ while Passage 2 argues that brain size does not signify intelligence
12. Which generalization about dolphins is supported by both passages?
(A) They display self-awareness.
(B) They are more emotional than other animals.
(C) They learn at a rapid rate.
(D) They have a certain degree of intelligence.
(E) piey have shown the ability to use tools.
Questions 13-24 are based on the following passage.
The following passage appeared in an essay written in 1987 in which the author, who is ofNative American descent, examines the representation ofNative Americans during the course of United States history,In many respects living Native Americans remain as mysterious, exotic, and unfathomable to their contempo¬raries at the end of the twentieth century as they were to the Line Pilgrim settlcrs over three hundred fifty years ago. Native
5 rights, motives, customs, languages, and aspirations are
misunderstood by Euro-Americans out of a culpable igno¬
rance that is both self-serving and self-righteous. Part of
the problem may well stem from the long-standing ten¬
dency of European or Euro-American thinkers to regard
10 Native Americans as fundamentally and profoundly
different，motivated more often by mysticism than by
ambition, charged more by unfathomable visions than
by intelligence or introspection.
This idea is certainly not new. Rousseau's* "noble
]5 savages’，wandered, pure of heart, through a pristine world.
Since native people were simply assumed to be incompre¬
hensible, they were seldom comprehended. Their societies
were simply beheld, often through cloudy glasses, and
rarely probed by the tools of logic and deductive analysis
20 automatically reserved for cultures prejudged to be
•‘civilized.” And on those occasions when Europeans
did attempt to formulate an encompassing theory, it was
not, ordinarily, on a human-being-to-human-being basis,
but rather through an ancestor-descendant model. Native
25 Americans, though obviously contemporary with their
observers, were somehow regarded as ancient, examples
of what Stone Age Europeans must have been like.
It's a great story, an international crowd pleaser, but
there is a difficulty; Native Americans were，and are,
30 Homo sapiens sapiens. Though often equipped with a
shovel-shaped incisor tooth, eyes with epicanthic folds’
or an extra molar cusp. Native American people have had
to cope, for the last forty thousand years or so, just like
everyone else. Their cultures have had to make intemai
35 sense, their medicines have had to work consistently and
practically, their philosophical explanations have had to be
reasonably satisfying and dependable, or else the ancestors
of those now called Native Americans would truly have
vanished long ago.
40 The reluctance in accepting this obvious fact comes
from the Eurocentric conviction that the West holds a
monopoly on science, logic, and clear thinking. To
admit that other, culturally divergent viewpoints are
equally plausible is to cast doubt on the monolithic
45 center of Judeo-Christian belief: that there is but one
of everything—God, right way, truth—and Europeans
alone knew what that was. If Native American cultures
were acknowledged as viable，then European societies
were something less than an exclusive club. It is little
50 wonder, therefore, that Native Americans were perceived
not so much as they were but as they had to be，from a
European viewpoint. They dealt in magic，not method.
They were stuck in their past, not guided by its precedents.
Such expedient misconception argues strongly for the
55 development and dissemination of a more accurate, more
objective historical account of native peoples—a goal
easier stated than accomplished. Native American societies
were nonliterate before and during much of the early period
of their contact with Europe, making the task of piecing
60 together a history particularly demanding. The familiar and
reassuring kinds of written documentation found in European
societies of equivalent chronological periods do not exist,
and the forms of tribal record preservation available—oral
history, tales，mnemonic devices, and religious rituals—
65 strike university-trained academics as inexact, unreliable,
and suspect. ��estem historians, culture-bound by their
own approach to knowledge, are apt to declaim that next to
nothing, save the evidence of archaeology, can be known
of early Native American life. To them, an absolute void
70 is more acceptable and rigorous than an educated guess.
However, it is naive to assume that any culture's history
is perceived without subjective prejudice. Every modem
observer, whether he or she was schooled in the traditions
of the South Pacific or Zaire, of Hanover, New Hampshire,
75 or Vienna, Austria, was exposed at an early age to one or
another form of folklore at>out Native Americans. For
some, the very impressions about Native American tribes
that initially attracted them to the field of American history
are aspects most firmly rooted in popular myth and stereo-
80 type. Serious scholarship about Native American culture and
history is unique in that it requires an initial, abrupt, and
wrenching demythologizing. Most students do not start
from point zero, but ftcmi mimi&zero, and in the process are
often required to abandon cherished childhood fantasies of
85 superheroes or larger-than-life villains.
♦ Rousseau was an eighteenth-century French philosopher.
13. The refefe�ce to ‘the Pilgrim settlers” (lines 3-4) is used to •
(A) invite reflection about a less complicated era
(B) suggest the lasting relevance of religious issues
(C) establish a contrast with today's reformers
(D) debunk a myth about early colonial life
(E) draw a parallel to a current condition
14. In line 12，"charged" most nearly means
15. In line 14, the reference to Rousseau is used to emphasize the
(A) philosophical origins of cultural bias
(B) longevity of certain types of misconceptions
(C) tendency to fear the unknown
(D) diversity among European intellectual traditions
(E) argument that even great thinkers are fallible
16. The phrase "international crowd pleaser" (line 28) refers to ,
(A) an anthropological fallacy
(B) an entertaining novelty
(C) a harmless deception
(D) a beneficiai error
(E) a cultural revolution
17. The "difficulty" referred to in line 29 most directly undermines
(A) the ancestor-descendant model used by European observers
(B) the possibility for consensus in anthropological inquiry
(C) efforts to rid popular culture of false stereotypes
(D) theories based exclusively on logic and deductive reasoning
(E) unfounded beliefs about early European communities
18. Lines 34-37 ("Their cultures ... dependable") describe
(A) customs that fuel myths about a society
(B) contradictions that conventional logic cantiot resolve
(C) characteristics that are essential to the survi� of any people
(D) criteria that Western historians traditionally use to assess cultures
(E) preconditions that must be met before a culture can influence others
19. The two sentences that begin with ‘They” in lines 52-53 serve to express the
(A) way one group perceived another
(B) results of the latest research
(C) theories of Native Americans about Europeans
(D) external criticisms that some Native American accepted
(E) survival techniques adopted by early human societies
20. In lines 66-70, the author portrays Western historians as
(A) oblivious to the value of archaeological research
(B) disadvantaged by an overly narrow methodology
(C) excessively impressed by prestigious credentials
(D) well meaning but apt to do more harm than good
(E) anxious to contradict the faulty conclusions of their predecessors
21. The "educated guess’’ mentioned in line 70 would most likely be based on
(A) compilations of government population statistics
(B) sources such as oral histories and religious rituals
(C) analyses of ancient building structures by archaeologists
(D) measurements of fossils to determine things such as physical characteristics
(E) studies of artifacts discovered in areas associated with particular tribes
22. The geographical references in lines 74-75 serve to underscore the
(A) influence Native American culture has had outside the United States
(B) argument that academic training is undergoing increasing homogenization
(C) universality of certain notions about Native American peoples
(D) idea that Native Americans have more in common with other peoples than is acknowledged
(E) unlikelihood that scholars of Native American history will settle their differences
23. The passage suggests that “Most students” (line 82) need to undergo a process of
24. In line 83，"minus zero” refers to the
(A) nature of the preconceptions held by most beginning scholars of Native American culture
(B) quality of scholarship about Native American cultures as currently practiced at most universities
(C) reception that progressive scholars of Native American history have received in academia
(D) shortage of written sources available to students of Native American history
(E) challenges.that face those seeking grants to conduct original research about Native American history