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Passage 1 is adapted from Catharine Beecher, Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism. Originally published in 1837. Passage 2 is adapted from Angelina E. Grimke, Letters to Catharine Beecher. Originally published in 1838. Grimke encouraged Southern women to oppose slavery publicly. Passage 1 is Beecher's response to Grimk的views. Passage 2 is Grimke's response to Beecher.
Heaven has appointed to one sex the superior, and to the other the subordinate station, and this without any reference to the character or conduct of Line either. It is therefore as much for the dignity as it is for the interest of females, in all respects to conform to the duties of this relation .... But while woman holds a subordinate relation in society to the other sex, it is not because it was designed that her duties or her influence should be any the less important, or all-pervading. But it was designed that the mode of gaining influence and of exercising power should be altogether different and peculiar ....
A man may act on society by the collision of he may coerce by the combination of public sentiment; he may drive by physical force, and he does not outstep the boundaries of his sphere. But all the power, and all the conquests that are lawful to
intellect, in public debate; he may urge his measures 75 by a sense of shame, by fear and by personal interest;woman, are those only which appeal to the kindly,generous, peaceful and benevolent principles.
Woman is to win every thing by peace and love; by making herself so much respected, esteemed and loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her 25 wishes, will be the free-will offering of the heart. But this is to be all accomplished in the domestic and social circle. There let every woman become so cultivated and refined in intellect, that her taste and judgment will be respected; so benevolent in feeling and action; that her motives will be reverenced; —so unassuming and unambitious, that collision and competition will be banished; —so "gentle and easy to be entreated," as that every heart will repose in her presence; then, the fathers, the husbands, and the 35 sons, will find an influence thrown around them,to which they will yield not only willingly proudly ....