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如何满足ACT作文繁杂的评分要求

2018-04-27 11:25 三立在线 admin

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摘要:下面为大家介绍的是如何满足ACT作文繁杂的评分要求,希望对大家有所帮助,每次ACT考试前,三立在线名师团队都会推出最新ACT考试机经,为大家保驾护航,快加入三立在线ACT微信群,免费预约申请!

 

 

  如何满足ACT作文繁杂的评分要求?

  在考完英语,数学,阅读,科学四部分后,就会开始考写作部分(参加写作考试不会影响由英语,数学,阅读,科学这四部分组成的总分)。

  写作考试时间是40分钟。题目有关当代社会问题,题目之下会有一个对这个问题的描述,然后会给出三个关于此问题的观点。写作时,考生需要评估和分析这三个观点,并且要写出和拓展自己的观点(你的分数不会因为你选了什么观点而受影响),然后需解释自己的观点与所给三个观点的关系。这看起来是一个浩大的工程,一篇文章不再是简单的支持或反对,而是一篇文章内同时需要涉及三方观点,自己观点,以及自己观点与这三方观点的关系。

  但是麻烦的事还不止于此,最终作文分数将由四个评分标准得出:思想与分析(Ideas and Analysis),拓展与支撑(Development and Support),组织(Organization)和语言使用与习语(Language Use and Conventions)。在繁杂的论证过程中,考生还要体现出一定深度的思考,要有饱满的论证,清晰的文章结构和地道的语言。

  那么究竟什么样的写法,什么样的文章是符合这些要求的呢?最便捷,最权威的方法就是好好来分析一下ACT官网给出的满分范文。下面是题目与范文:

  As technology improves, and more and more tasks are completed by machines instead of humans, the question is no longer about what we can do with machines, but rather what we should. Although the usage of machines increases efficiency and our standard of living, it detracts from the value of human life.

  As machines increasingly perform all our basic tasks, society is able to produce more. The additional production adds material value to our society and frees people up from these low-skill tasks. This is in agreement with Perspective Two which claims that this industrialization leads to more prosperity. For example, in the 18th century, short-staple cotton that was grown in the Southern United States required an immense amount of labor in order to seperate the seeds from the fiber to process the cotton to make it marketable. However, in the mid-19th century, Eli Whitney, an American entrepreneur, invented the cotton gin, which allowed for automation of cotton processing. This machine replaced the need of a large work force for the process and greatly improved production. As a result of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton production skyrocketed, increasing by more than 10 times in the South while bringing prosperity to the region and setting in motion a new industrial era in America. This is in agreement with Perspective Three, which says that mechanization allows for “unimagined possibilities”. Although there are clearly many advantages to industrialization, there are also some heavy drawbacks.

  The replacement of humans by machines leads to the loss of value to human life, an effect that outweighs the material gains of automation. The search to find human tasks that can be performed by machines inevitably leads to comparisons between the human and the machine. If a company executive wants to see if a inventory management team can be replaced by a robotic system, he will compare the two and determine which can do a better job. When this occurs, the people on the team are evaluated not for their worth as human beings, but for their effectiveness at performing a specific function—in essence, as we would evaluate a machine. In a larger sense, when we begin to think about humans in this way, the worth of a person’s life becomes dependent on only what they can do and no longer has any intrinsic value. As Perspective One states, we begin to lose our humanity. This new mindset and way of evaluating people, though seemingly harmless in the workplace, is devastating when it begins to pervade a society. If a person is judged only on his or her capability, there is no reason for a person to remain after they have served their function. This would warrant genocide against the elderly and the disabled because their burden on society would not be made up for by any production. Although the machines may seem to only fulfill the low skill jobs at the moment, there is no barrier to prevent the machines from replacing more. As the machines increase in intelligence, they will replace any tasks done by humans and render us unnecessary and worthless.

  Due to the risks of dehumanization, the material benefits of machines are not enough to justify its increasing presence.

  我们会发现,本文作者用了四段就完美回应了这些要求。他洞悉了第二个观点与第三个观点的内在联系,于是一口气在第二段中清晰地描述和分析了这两个观点;他选择第一个观点为自己的观点,于是也在一个段落中解决了两个问题。他又在第三段前半部分以一个承上启下的方式论证了自己为何不同意第二个观点和第三个观点,接着引出了与自己观点一致的第一个观点,最后较深刻地拓展了自己的观点,也完美做到了“写出自己观点与这三方观点的关系”和“写出和拓展自己的观点”这两个要求。

  在思想与分析方面,作者有一个明确主题:智能机器带来的高效率最终对社会和人类是有害的。作者还对智能机器的好坏进行了深刻的分析,例如智能机器带来的高效率和繁荣会贬抑人类生活的价值,追求物质利益会带来无形的成本。作者在分析智能机器好与坏的同时,写出了这个问题的深度和复杂性。

  在拓展与支撑方面,作者有一个很好的例证,他用19世纪分开棉花种子与纤维的事例论证了智能机器的好处,这样的例证可以细读并学习,看其是如何同时支撑两个观点的。在文章其他部分,作者不用具体事例,用了理论论证的方法清晰地拓展了第一个观点和自己的观点。相比单一事例论证来说,理论论证往往更有说服力。写出漂亮的理论论证是得高分的必备条件,这并不是一两天就能掌握,需要一个真正懂写作的老师把逻辑链中的每一个点都清晰地呈现给学生。

  在组织与结构方面,作者紧紧地围绕着一个主题推进着全文,作出了一步步的论证,清晰的分段与承上启下的巧妙运用,也让全文显得非常有条理。

  在语言方面,我们会发现全文几乎没有使用生僻词或难词,但每个词和每个词组都用得十分准确,而且表意清晰,传达出了情感,最终让人感觉全文读起来十分顺畅。这是超高水平的体现。要达到这一点,光靠背一些难词或模版是无法做到的。如果你想考得更好,或是未来在美国大学中不让写作成为自己拿A的障碍,那最好脚踏实地学习一下,从学习如何分辨或感觉到文章的好坏开始。在这里先推荐大家阅读「Elements of Style」。

  说到这里,可能大家会有一个疑问,面对复杂的评分标准,ACT是如来评分的呢?ACT写作评分流程如下:两个受过训练的评分官会在1-6分范围内对作文的四个标准评分,每个标准的分数是两个评分官所评分数之和,也就是说,这四个标准的分数范围是2-12分,最终通过转换,考生将得到一个在1-36分范围内的作文分数。同时,考生还会得到一个英语语言分数(English Language Arts score)。这个分数是英语,阅读和写作部分的平均分。

  以上整理的就是如何满足ACT作文繁杂的评分要求,希望对考生们有帮助。建议大家加入ACT考试微信群或QQ群,及时了解最新考试动态,进群就免费送历年ACT真题、机经、备考资料大全!关于本文有任何疑问,请和三立在线在线专家联系。

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