# 2019年A-level物理：量子物理学

2019-04-15 19:19 三立在线

英国高中课程（General Certificate of Education Advanced Level ）简称A-Level课程，它是英国的普通中等教育证书考试高级水平课程，是英国的全民课程体系。今天，小编为大家带来的是2019年A-level物理之量子物理学的相关资讯，希望对准备考试的你有所帮助！

不光因为他对于学生们模糊的定义，让大家难以理解这到底是什么，更是由于很多陌生繁琐的定理与公式不断地涌现，不知如何才能熟练掌握。

那么接下来，我将从几个部分细细讲解一下这两章节，最终目的是看过这篇文章的同学们能够在paper4中遇到此章节的题，有清晰的思路并且将分数稳稳拿住。

一.the definition of key vocabularies.

-Particle model: objects that are hard, have mass and move about according to laws of Newtonian mechanics

-Wave model: shaped like a sine graph, do not have mass or charge. Their defining characteristics are diffraction and interference

-Photoelectric effect: when an electromagnetic radiation of sufficiently high frequency falls on a metal surface, electrons are emitted and the emitted electrons are called photoelectrons

-Photoelectric current: current due to photoelectrons

-Photon: each quantum (particle) of electromagnetic radiation

-Work function: minimum amount of energy required by an electron to escape its surface

-Matter wave: a moving particle of matter of momentum will have an associated wave of wavelength where

-Under normal conditions, an atom is in its ground state where it posses the minimum possible energy

-Transition: shifting of electrons between energy levels

-Mass defect : the difference between the total mass of the individual, separate nucleons and the mass of the nucleus

-Binding energy : the minimum external energy required to separate all the neutrons and protons of a nucleus. It is also the energy released when the nucleus is assembled from its constituent nucleons

-Binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus is the ratio of the total binding energy to its nucleon number

-Fission: process in which a massive nucleus splits to form two smaller fragments-Fusion: process by which two very light nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus

-Random: impossible to predict and each nucleus has the same probability of decaying per unit time

-Spontaneous: not affected by external factors such as the presence of other nuclei, temperature and pressure

-The activity of a radioactive sample is the rate at which nuclei decay or disintegrate

-The decay constant is the probability that an individual nucleus will decay per unit time interval

-The half life of a radioactive is the mean time taken for half of the active nuclei in a sample to decay

二. Key rules

Laws of Photoelectric Emission:

• 1st Law: number of photoelectrons emitted per second is directly proportional to intensity of incident radiation

• 2nd Law: max kinetic energy of photoelectrons is directly proportional to the frequency of the incident radiation but independent of its intensity

• 3rd Law: for every metal, there is a minimum frequency of incident radiation below which photoelectric emission does not take place; threshold frequency

• Threshold frequency: minimum frequency required to release electrons from the surface of a metal

以上是小编给大家带来的2019年A-level物理之量子物理学的相关资讯，希望对考生们的备考有一定帮助！

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