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SAT语法八大考点之句子结构题型解析

2015-07-01 17:52 三立在线 admin
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摘要:在SAT语法八大考点中,考察句子结构是最常见类型之一。句子结构又可细分为两类题型:句子的完整性和run-on句型。

   马翔岚:英语专业学士学位,英语专业八级,对教学法有深刻研究,持有教师资格证。对SAT语法考点把握有自己独到的见解,能根据学生的情况为学生制定有效的学习计划和方案,帮助学生快速构架知识体系,因材施教。善于鼓励学生提问,促进思考和理解。讲课富有逻辑性和感染力,极具亲和力,深受学生喜欢。


  在SAT语法八大考点中,考察句子结构是最常见类型之一。句子结构又可细分为两类题型:句子的完整性和run-on句型。

  第一类,句子完整性。需要考生分析句子是否完整。在一个完整的句子中,有且只能有一套主谓结构(S+V+O),即是(施动者,动作,受动者)。例如,"I like dogs."通过这个我们非常熟息的句子,我们就能记住I是施动者(主语),like是动作(谓语),dogs是受动者(宾语)。这就是一套完整的主谓结构。在这一部分SAT怎样出题呢?非谓语动词,从句和分号。

  考点一:非谓语动词。简单的说就是done,doing,to do这三种结构,而它们都不能充当谓语。下面分别有三组句子:

  1.The school established by his father. 句子想表达这所学校被他父亲建立。被动就说明这个establish 是done的形式。但是单独的done就是非谓语,句子就缺少谓语。应用be done的形式才构成完整的主谓结构。我们再来对句子做一个小的改动。His father established the school.他的父亲建立了这所学校。这时就没有被动的语态,可以看出establish用了did的形式,did充当句子谓语,整句话完整。要分清动词是did 还是done,我们只需要对句子翻译一下就一目了然。

  2.zookeepers explaining the definition of the rules.

  3.The United States and Canada to set some limits.

  而这两个句子我们就发现是用直接食用doing 和 to do 的形式当然也是不能充当谓语,所以也不完整。

  考点二:从句。出现从句那我们一定要保证主句和从句都有完整的主谓结构。我们来看两个例子:

  1.Santa Fe,which is one of the oldest cities in the United States.这句话用which 引导一个从句,主句没有谓语因此也不完整。

  2.Because it's rainy,so we cancel the plan.同样,because引导一个从句,so引导一个从句,缺少了主句部分。

  考点三:分号。分号前后连接的两个句子必须是完整的。例如:It is a pen;Which is red.分号后用which引导一个从句,没有主句,不完整。我们可以将其改为It is red.

  解答句子完整性的这类题有个快速的方法,就是找谓语。下面我们结合真题来分析:

  One of the most beautiful trees in North America, the chestnut tree brought nearly to extinction by a fungus during the chestnut blight of 1909.

  A. tree brought nearly to extinction by a fungus

  B. tree, which a fungus brought nearly to extinction

  C. tree, but a fungus brought it nearly to extinction

  D. tree was brought nearly to extinction by a fungus

  E. tree, having been brought nearly to extinction by a fungus


  题目未划线部分缺少谓语,需要从选项中找到谓语。B选项which引导从句,整个句子不完整。C选项but后面句子完整但前面不完整。E选项having done 为非谓语。剩下A选项和D选项,我们翻译句子发现,栗子树被真菌影响到一个濒临灭绝的状态。除此之外”by”也是一个明显的提示。所以被动我们选D。

  Because fiscal problems will force some cities to lay off firefighters, and so the state legislature must decide whether to provide those cities with financial aid.

  A. firefighters, and so

  B. firefighters is a matter

  C.firefighters,

  D.firefighters; then

  E.firefighters; this is a problem

  题目未划线部分because引导的从句完整,此时只需要一个逗号连接即可。A选项句子不完整,B选项多了谓语,D,E选项分号分开主从句,不完整。正确答案为C。

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  第二类,Run-on句型。简单的说就是逗号不可以连接两个完整的句子。而其在SAT语法中的考点分三类:逗号连接两个句子,副词连接两个句子和介词连接两个句子。

  Obama loves Michelle , Michelle loves Obama.

  Obama loves Michelle, also Michelle loves Obama.

  Despite Obama likes icecream ,he doesn't have much.

  这三个例子非常明显的体现了这三个考点。

  副词总结:

  1.表因果: thus therefore hence acoordingly so(adv&conj)

  2.表转折:however nevertheless yet(adv&conj) though(adv&conj)

  3.表递进:in addition moreover furthermore also

  介词总结:

  in / at / on/ despite/ in spite of/ along with

  解答run-on句型的关键点就在于看逗号前后是否是完整的句子,如果是完整句子,此句就是run-on句型。下面我们结合真题来分析:

  Alice Guy Blache, an early filmmaker, introduced close-ups and double exposures, also she set cars on fire, used rats in special effects sequences, and ran film backward.

  A. exposures, also she set

  B. exposures, and also she sets

  C. exposures, she set

  D. exposures; she also set

  E. exposures by her setting

  题目未划线部分是有谓语的,并且有两个谓语动词,所以需要从句或者分号来连接。A选项和C选项出现run-on句型。B选项时态语主句时态不一致。E选项代入句子意思翻译不通。所以选择D选项。

  Jesse Jackson's Rainbow PUSH Coalition was established to encourage diverse populations to become socially and politically active, was created in 1996 by the merging of two groups Jackson had previously founded.

  A.Coalition was established

  B. Coalition is established

  C. Coalition, establishing

  D. Coalition, which being established

  E. Coalition, established

  题目未划线部分有谓语所以A,B选项run-on句型。D选项which引导的从句使整个句子不完整。而这个Coalition是被建立而不是主动建立,所以此处应该选E选项。


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