GRE作文范文 Argument-42


发布人:若木           2011-01-16 23:25:48

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摘要: GRE作文范文 Argument-42 It is known that in recent years, industrial pollution has caused the Earth's ozone layer to thin, allowing an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface. At the same time, s
GRE作文范文 Argument-42
 
"It is known that in recent years, industrial pollution has caused the Earth's ozone layer to thin, allowing an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface. At the same time, scientists have discovered, the population of a species of salamander that lays its eggs in mountain lakes has declined. Since ultraviolet radiation is known to be damaging to delicate tissues and since salamander eggs have no protective shells, it must be the case that the increase in ultraviolet radiation has damaged many salamander eggs and prevented them from hatching. This process will no doubt cause population declines in other species, just as it has in the salamander species."
 
嘉文博译Sample Essay
 
Here the arguer states that industrial pollution has caused the Earth’s ozone layer to become thinner, thus allowing more ultraviolet (UV) radiation to reach the surface of the Earth. The arguer states that at the same time, scientists have discovered that the population of a species of salamander that lays its eggs in mountain lakes has declined. The arguer also states that ultraviolet radiation is known to be damaging to delicate tissues and that salamander eggs have no protective shells. The arguer than concludes that UV radiation must have damaged the salamander’s eggs and prevented them from hatching, and that the same process will cause other species’ populations to decline as well. This argument should be rejected because it is based on faulty cause and effect reasoning.
 
First of all, the arguer fails to present any evidence that UV radiation is actually damaging this particular species of salamander’s eggs or that it prevents them from hatching. Although it may be that UV rays are harmful to delicate tissues, it does not automatically follow that UV rays are therefore harmful to the salamander’s eggs or that it keeps them from being able to hatch. Furthermore, the arguer implies that because this salamander’s eggs have no protective shells, they must be vulnerable to UV radiation. Again, there is no evidence that this is the case. It is possible that they simply are not vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation, with or without protective shells. Without providing direct proof that the UV rays are indeed harmful to the salamander’s eggs, the argument is weakened and remains unconvincing.
 
Furthermore, there is absolutely no evidence presented that the salamander’s eggs are being harmed or prevented from hatching by anything. It is possible that the eggs of the salamander are not being harmed at all. The arguer assumes that UV radiation damage is the reason for the decline in the population but totally ignores all other possible reasons. For example, it is possible that another species that preys on the salamanders or its eggs has increased, therefore leading to the decline in its population. It could be that other types of pollutants have polluted the water, killing off the salamander and/or its eggs. Perhaps a drought has caused the mountain lakes to shrink, therefore leaving fewer places for the salamander to lays its eggs and causing the decline. By ignoring these other possible reasons for the decline in the population of this species of salamander, as well as providing no evidence that its eggs are actually even being harmed, the arguer has critically weakened his or her position.
 
In addition, there is absolutely no evidence whatsoever presented that, even assuming that the UV radiation is causing a decline in this particular species of salamander, it will also cause population declines in other species. It does not follow that simply because one species has been negatively impacted by ultraviolet radiation that other species will be harmed as well. It could be possible that this particular species of salamander has a genetic predisposition that causes it to be ultra-sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, therefore resulting in a decline in its population. The argument fails to convince that other species will also decline, even assuming that this particular species of salamander is being harmed by UV radiation.
 
In summary, the arguer bases his or her argument on vague and unconvincing evidence. Without showing a direct cause and effect relationship between an increase in ultraviolet radiation and damage that prevents this species of salamander’s eggs from hatching, as well as direct evidence that other species will be harmed as well, this argument fails to convince on its premise and should be rejected. 
 
(615 words)
参考译文
 
  众所周知,在最近的几年中,工业污染已导致地球的臭氧层变得日益稀薄,致使到达地球表面的紫外线辐射量增加。同时,科学家们发现,一种在山间湖泊里产卵的物种——蝾螈——的种群数量已出现减少。由于紫外线辐射会破坏纤薄的组织,且由于蝾螈的卵没有任何保护性外壳,情况肯定是,紫外线辐射的增加已毁灭了大量的蝾螈卵,使他们无法被孵化。这一过程无疑会导致其他物种的种群数量下降,正如它已导致了蝾螈物种的数量下降那样
 
  上述文字的论述者在这里宣称,工业污染已导致地球的臭氧层变得日趋稀薄,从而使更多的紫外线辐射到达地球表面。论述者称,与此同时,科学家们发现,一种叫做蝾螈的在山间湖泊里产卵的物种,其种群数量已呈下降趋势。论述者还指出,紫外线辐射可破坏纤薄的组织,并且蝾螈的卵没有任何保护壳。论述者然后得出结论认为,紫外线辐射肯定已对蝾螈的卵构成破坏,致使它们无法孵化,并且这同一种过程也将致使其他物种的种群数量呈下降趋势。这一论述应予以摈弃,因为它全然基于谬误和虚妄的因果推理。
 
   首先,论述者没能列举出任何证据来证明,紫外线确实在损害着蝾螈这一特定物种所产的卵,以及在阻碍着它们的孵化。虽然紫外线有可能对纤薄的组织有害,但这并不能自然而然地使我们得出结论,说紫外线因此对蝾螈的卵有害,使它们无法被孵化出来。此外,论述者暗示,由于这种蝾螈的卵没有任何保护壳,它们肯定易于受到紫外线的毁损。我们再一次发现,没有任何证据可证明实际情况确实如此。有可能是,无论有没有保护壳,它们根本不会易于受紫外线毁损。由于没能提供直接的证据来证明紫外线对蝾螈的卵确实有害,故这一论述深受削弱,令人无法信服。
 
  进一步而言,论述者绝没有列举出证据来证明,蝾螈的卵正受到任何因素的危害,或因为任何因素而无法得以孵化。蝾螈的卵有可能一点也没有受到伤害。论述者假设紫外线的破坏是该种群数量下降的原因,但却完全忽略了所有其他各种可然性原因。例如,可能另一类物种的数量在不断上升,它们以蝾螈及它们的卵作为捕食对象,从而导致其种群数量下降。也有可能是其他种类的污染物造成了水污染,大量杀死了蝾螈和/或其卵。或许干旱造成山间湖泊萎缩,从而使蝾螈产卵的场所越来越少,引起该物种数量下降。由于忽略了造成蝾螈这一物种种群数量下降的其他可然性因素,论述者严重削弱了其论点的逻辑性。
 
  此外,论述者绝对没有列举出任何证据来证明这样一个结论,即尽管我们假设紫外线辐射正在造成蝾螈这一特定物种数量下降,它也必将造成其他物种的种群数量下降。有一件事情是不合逻辑的,即只是因为某一物种受到了紫外线辐射的负面影响,其他物种也会以同样的方式受到伤害。情况有可能是,蝾螈这一特定物种具有某种基因特性,使其对紫外线辐射特别敏感,从而导致其种群数量下降。该论述没能让我们相信,即使假定蝾螈这一特定物种正在受到紫外线辐射的伤害,其他物种也会出现数量上的减少。
 

  归纳而言,论述者将其论述基于模糊不清的和无法令人置信的证据上。该论述由于没能在紫外辐射量的增加与造成蝾螈这一物种的卵无法孵化的破坏之间证明某种直接的因果关系,且没能列举出直接的证据来证明其他的物种同样也会受到危害,故无法让人信服其命题,故应予以摈弃。 

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